Lean 5S History

Lean, like so many innovative ideas, products, or services, was born out of necessity.
In post-World War II Japan, the founder of Toyota, Sakichi Toyoda, his son Kiichiro Toyoda,
and their chief engineer, Taiichi Ohno, developed the Toyota Production System.
Toyota Production System (TPS) is the philosophy that still organizes manufacturing and logistics at Toyota,
including the interaction with suppliers and customers.

These three innovative thinkers from Toyota visited the United States and they observed the great
manufacturing empire established by Henry Ford. They were, however, unimpressed.
They immediately noticed that while Ford had created a monumental manufacturing machine,
he had failed to address what they felt was the key issue for them - waste.
They noticed that with Ford's assembly line that tasks were not spaced and timed to enhance work flow.
Therefore, the process was often waiting on steps to catch up to other steps,
and partially completed work often piled up. In addition, the production system in place continually
created a great deal of overproduction, which led to routine shut downs and layoffs and regular restarts and rehires.

Although Toyota (Toyoda) was basically unimpressed with Ford's manufacturing plant,
he was very impressed with another US business -- Piggly Wiggly Supermarket.
They saw the benefit of only reordering and restocking goods as they were purchased from the customer.
They realized that if they were to compete on the world stage in the automotive industry, they would need to apply
these same principles to their operation. Thus, JIT, or just-in-time inventory was developed.
To do this, Toyota reduced the amount of inventory they would need to hold only to a level that its employees
would need for a small period of time, and then subsequently reorder.

Although Toyota is credited with beginning Lean Production with their Toyota Production System,
the roots of "lean"date back as far as the 16th century. In 1570, King Henry III of France watched in amazement
as the Venice Arsenal built galley ships in less than an hour using continuous flow process. So, as a conceptual idea,
we have known for centuries that continuous flow produces results.
Other companies have taken the Toyota Production System even further. Motorola implemented Lean Production Systems,
and almost immediately noticed a decrease in wastes, an increase in productivity and quality and an increased awareness of safety.
Their efforts led to the development of Lean Six Sigma. Six Sigma basically, defines quality in degrees of sigma
with six being the highest and defined as no more than 3.4 defects per one million opportunities.

Bron: biznik.com

Phase one is Seiri. This means going through all the tools and materials in the plant work areas
and only keeping the items that are essential. All other tools and items are stored or discarded.
The Americanized version of this is "Sorting."

Phase two is Seiton, a process that focuses on efficiency. The goal is to arrange tools, equipment,
and parts so that they encourage work flow. Tools and equipment should be placed where they will be used,
and the process should take place in an order that has maximum efficiency. This concept wasn't easy to translate
into an English term beginning with the letter S, but attempts have produced "straighten," "set in order," and "sort."
The concept that's important is that tools and activities should be ordered so as to maximize the flow of work.

Phase three is Seiso. This is simply the need to keep the workplace clean and neat.
When every shift ends, the work area is cleaned, and everything goes back in place.
This process lets everyone know what goes where, and lets them have confidence that everything is where it needs to be.
Maintaining cleanliness is part of the daily work task, not just something that gets tackled when the workplace becomes too messy.
The American version of Seiso is "sweeping" or "shining."

Phase four is Seiketsu. This simply means that work practices operate consistently and in a standardized manner.
Each worker knows what responsibilities he or she has in keeping the first three S's. The American word is "standardizing."

Phase five is Shitsuke, which refers to maintaining high standards and reviewing those standards.
It is a way to maintain focus on the this system of operating and not allowing people or processes to slip back into old habits.
Any suggested improvements should be considered in light of the first four S's. The Americanization is "sustain."

Whether a sixth phase (safety) should be added is the matter of some debate.
Some believe that the five S's automatically result in a safe workplace, while others contend that poorly designed 5S
processes can undermine safety.

Bron: www.quality-assurance-solutions.com

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